Ancestral differences in genomic variation are determining factors in gene regulation; however, most gene expression studies have been limited to European ancestry samples or adjusted for ancestry to identify ancestry-independent associations. We instead examined the impact of genetic ancestry on gene expression and DNA methylation (DNAm) in admixed African/Black American neurotypical individuals to untangle effects of genetic and environmental factors. Ancestry-associated differentially expressed genes (DEGs), transcripts, and gene networks, while notably not implicating neurons, are enriched for genes related to immune response and vascular tissue and explain up to 26% of heritability for ischemic stroke, 27% of heritability for Parkinson’s disease, and 30% of heritability for Alzhemier’s disease. Ancestry-associated DEGs also show general enrichment for heritability of diverse immune-related traits but depletion for psychiatric-related traits. The cell-type enrichments and direction of effects vary by brain region. These DEGs are less evolutionarily constrained and are largely explained by genetic variations; roughly 15% are predicted by DNAm variation implicating environmental exposures. We also compared Black and White Americans, confirming most of these ancestry-associated DEGs. Our results highlight how environment and genetic background affect genetic ancestry differences in gene expression in the human brain and affect risk for brain illness.